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Your first step into the world of TCP/IP No TCP/IP experience required Includes clear and easily understood explanations Makes learning easy Your first step to.
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You can change your ad preferences anytime. Upcoming SlideShare. It is the official protocol of the Internet and, consequently, has become the predominant communications protocol suite in many private networks and internetworks. Learn about packetized data transfer, open networking, reference models, and standards bodies.


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Learn more about the First-Step Series at www. Mark A. Sportack has worked in the information technology industry for more than 20 years.

TCP/IP first step ( First-Step Series)

Mark has written numerous books on data networking and teaches graduate classes on networking and data communications at Syracuse University. Read more Read less.


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  8. About the Author Mark A. No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. Today, ethernet is mostly used with twisted pair lines which are used in a collapsed bus system that are contained in switches or hubs. In switched environments there's also the distinction if communication between the node and the switch can happen in half- or in full duplex mode.

    To permit this all hosts on a given network must have a unique IP address.

    Table of Contents

    They give certain ranges of addresses network-addresses directly to sites which want to participate in the internet or to internet-providers, which give the addresses to their customers. If your university or company is connected to the Internet, it has at least one such network-address for its own use, usually not assigned by the InterNIC directly, but rather through an Internet Service Provider ISP. However, if you want to connect your machine to the real :- Internet, you should get an IP addresses from your local network-administrator or -provider.

    For example, Another way to write down IP-addresses would be as one bit hex-word, e. This is not as convenient as the dotted-quad, but quite useful at times, too.

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    See below! Being assigned a network means nothing else but setting some of the above-mentioned 32 address-bits to certain values. These bits that are used for identifying the network are called network-bits. The remaining bits can be used to address hosts on that network, therefore they are called host-bits. IPv4-addresses are divided into more significant network- and less significant hostbits.

    In the above example, the network-address is How do you know that the host's address is 16 bit wide? Well, this is assigned by the provider from which you get your network-addresses. Before CIDR was used, there used to be four classes of networks. Each one starts with a certain bit-pattern identifying it. Here are the four classes:.

    The next seven bits of a class A address identify the network, the remaining 24 bit can be used to address hosts. So, within one class A network there can be 2 24 hosts. It's not very likely that you or your university, or company, or whatever will get a whole class A address. The next 14 bits are used for the networks address and the remaining 16 bits can be used to address more than hosts. Class B addresses are very rarely given out today, they used to be common for companies and universities before IPv4 address space went scarce. Returning to our above example, you can see that Therefore, the address Class C addresses are usually found at small companies.

    Those are used for special purposes e.

    How Does the Internet Work?

    Please note that the bits which are used for identifying the network-class are part of the network-address. Thus, putting together IP-address and netmask with a logical AND-function, the network-address remains. To continue our example, When applying this mask, the network-address For classful addressing, every network-class has a fixed default netmask assigned:. When sending to this address, all hosts on the corresponding network will receive the message sent. Taking Well, this doesn't work, as network- and broadcast-address must be present!

    Besides all those categories of addresses, there's the special IP-address This is sometimes useful to use services installed on your own machine or to play around if you don't have other hosts to put on your network. After talking so much about netmasks, network-, host- and other addresses, I have to admit that this is not the whole truth. Maybe it would be a nice thing to have all those hosts on one single network, but it's simply not possible due to limitations in the transport media commonly used today. For example, when using thinwire ethernet, the maximum length of the cable is meters.

    Even with repeaters in between, which refresh the signals, this is not enough to cover all the locations where machines are located. Besides that, there is a maximum number of hosts on one ethernet wire, and you'll lose quite a bit of performance if you go to this limit. So, are you hosed now? Having an address which allows more than hosts, but being bound to media which allows far less than that limit? Those subnets are only allowed to have, say, hosts on them i. To do this, you adjust your netmask to have more network- and less host-bits on it.

    This is usually done on a byte-boundary, but you're not forced to do it there. So, commonly your netmask will not be This gives you one additional network-byte to assign to each physical! All the hosts on that subnet can now talk directly to each other, and you can build such class C nets. This should fit your needs. To explain this better, let's continue our above example. Say our host In the above network, dusk can talk directly to dawn , as they are both on the same subnet.

    There are other hosts attached to the But what if dusk wants to talk to a host on another subnet?

    TCP/IP First-Step by Mark Sportack

    Well, the traffic will then go through one or more gateways routers , which are attached to two subnets. Because of this, a router always has two different addresses, one for each of the subnets it is on. The router is functionally transparent, i. Instead, you address that host directly and the packets will be routed to it correctly. Let's say dusk wants to get some files from the local ftp-server.

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